Translate

Wednesday, 22 November 2017

American battleship USS Wisconsin (BB-64) 1941-

South Dakota-class

Iowa-class

Montana-class

Part of the Iowa-class consisting of the Iowa, New Jersey, Missouri, Wisconsin, Illinois and Kentucky, for escorting Fast Carrier Task Forces on the Pacific Ocean, preceded by the South Dakota-class and succeeded by the never realized Montana-class. The designing-process of a fast battleship started in 1938. Building ordered on 12 June 1940, laid down on Philadelphia Navy Yard on 25 January 1941, launched by Mrs. Goodland on 7 December 1943, commissioned on 16 April 1944, decommissioned on 1 July 1948, recommissioned on 3 March 1951, decommissioned on 8 March 1958, reactivated on 1 August 1986, modernized, recommissioned on 22 October 1988, decommissioned on 30 September 1991, stricken on 17 March 2006 becoming a museum ship. Except for the Second World War also active in the Korean War (1950-1952)and in Operation Desert Storm (January-February 1991).





General technical class specifications. Displacement 45.000 (standard)-52.000 (mean war service)-57.000 (full load before the 1980s)-58.000 (full load after the 1980s) tons and as dimensions 262,5 (between perpendiculars)-270,43 (over all)x 32,97 x 11,33 metres or 861¼-887’3”x 108’2” x 37’2”. The machinery consisted of General Electric geared steam turbines and 8 water tube boilers delivering 212.000 shp. Speed 32,5-35,2 (light load) 3 knots. With a speed of 15 knots was the range 14.890 miles. Crew numbered 1.921 men. Original armament in 1943: 3x3-40,6cm/16” /50 cal Mark 7 guns, 20-12,7cm/5” /38 cal Mark 12 guns, 80-4cm /56cal anti aircraft guns and 49-2cm /70 cal anti aircraft guns. Armament in 1983: 3x3-40,6cm/16” /50 cal Mark 7 guns, 12-12,7cm/5” /38 cal Mark 12 guns, 32 BGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missiles, 16 RGM084 Harpoon Anti-Ship missiles and 4-2cm /76 cal Phalanx CIWS. Armour consisted of a 30,73cm/12.1” thick belt, 28,7cm/11.3” thick bulkheads, 19,05cm/7.5” thick decks with the barbettes and turrets protected by respectively 29,46cm/11.6”-43,94cm/17.3” and 50cm/19.7”. 





All photograps are supplied by the very interesting website MUSEUM SHIPS, for which our thanks

Russian Delta and Foxtrot submarines


The Project 641 class preceded by the Zulu-class and succeeded by the Tango-class was named Foxtrot by the NATO. Totally 58 were built between 1957-1983 by the Sudomek division, Admiralty Shipyard/Yard 196, Leningrad/St. Petersburg, Russia for the Soviet navy. Together for the submarines for other countries is the total number 74 boats. Foxtrot submarines were used by the Soviet/Russian, Libyan, Indian, Cuban, Ukrainian and Polish navies.

Displacement 1.983 (surfaced)-2.515 (submerged) tons and as dimensions 89,9 x 7,4 x 5,9 metres or 294.11 x 24.3 x 19.4 feet. The machinery consisted of 3-2.000hp diesels and 3-electric motors (2x1.350&1x2,700hp) and 1-80hp auxiliary motor driving 3 shafts and 3 screws allowing a speed of 16 (surfaced)-15 (submerged)-9 (snorkelling) knots and a range of 20.000 (surfaced with a speed of 8 knots)-11.000 (snorkelling)-380 (submerged with a speed of 2 knots) nautical miles. Able to stay 3-5 days while submerged. Test diving depth varied between 246 metres/807 feet-296 metres/971 feet. Their crew numbered 78 men. The armament consisted of 10-53,3cm/21” torpedo tubes (6 bow, 4 stern) for which 22 torpedoes could be carried.

The Projects 667B Murena, 667bD Murena-M, 667BDR Kalmar and 667BDRM Delfin classes nuclear ballistic missiles submarines, preceded by the Yankee-class and the Delta IV by the Typhoon-class and succeeded by the Borei-class were known by the NATO as Delta-class. Totally were 43 boats built.

With a displacement of 7.800 (surfaced)-10.000 (submerged) tons and as dimensions 139 x 12 x 9 metres or 456 x 39,4 x 29,6 feet for the Delta I-class increasing to a final displacement of 13.500 (surfaced)-18.200 (submerged) tons and as dimensions 166 x 12,3 x 8,8 metres or 544.7 x 40.4 x 29 feet. The last versions had an armament of 4-53,3cm/21” bow torpedo tubes and 16 missiles. 

Canadian navy to be strengthened according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad 1939 no. 2

An item referred to the magazine U.S.R. dated 15 December 1938 reporting that for the strengthening of the Canadian defence a budget of 9-10 million pound sterling was available. This was comparable with the budget Australia needed to buy a battleship. In fact were 2 destroyers and 4 minesweepers to be added to the fleet. The strategically important island Anticosti, Gulf of St. Lawrence (1) was the fitted out with coastal defence works. In the Canadian press were articles published that Germany was very interested in this island.

Note
1. In the province of Quebec at the outlet of the Saint Lawrence River. In July 1937 wanted Dutch and German capitalists to buy the island for building a sulphite mill. Newspapers suggested that when German surveyors visited the island it were in fact military experts. The offer was never accepted

Building of French battleship Richelieu less delayed as earlier feared for according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1939 no. 6

Dunkerque



An item referred to the Proceedings dated March 1939 reporting that the delay in the building of the French battleship Richelieu (1) was less considerable as first feared for. The private industry worked a lot of extra hours above the official 40 hours a week. The necessity for waiting for the delivery of materials however caused also delay.

Note
1. Richelieu-class consisting of the Richelieu, Gascogne, Jean Bart and Clemenceau, preceded by the Dunkerque-class and succeeded by the never realized Alsace-class. Designed as an answer on the Italian Vittorio Veneto-class battleships (1) while Italy and not Germany was the main threat for France regarded the supremacy in the Mediterranean. As a result of building under different programs were the ship not entirely similar. Laid down at the Brest Navy Yard, France on 22 October 1935, launched in the Salou no. 4 graving dock on 17 January 1939, bow and stern parts were with the hull assembled  in the Laninon dock no. 9, trials in April 1940, commissioned in June 1940, part of the forces of Vichy France, attacked by British Royal Air Force while lying at Dakar, Senegal - afraid she would fell in German hands, on 8 July 1940, involved in the Battle of Dakar against Free French and British forces between 23-25 September 1940, departed for the USA on 30 January 1943, at the Brooklyn Navy Yard overhauled and repaired, commissioned in October 1943, accommodation ship at Brest since 21 May 1956, laid up in reserve in 1958, condemned in 16 January 1968, renamed Q432 and breaking up at Cantieri Navali Santa Maria, Genoa, Italy started in September 1968. 

Japanese navy probably to introduce 45,7cm guns according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1939 no. 6

The Japanese No. 13-class

An item referred to the British monthly magazine The Navy reporting that Japan in the near future probably would introduce the 45,7cm/18” gun. The same calibre was also to be used as main armament for the battleships (1) under construction in 1922 but never completed due to the limits of the Naval Treaty of Washington.(2)

Notes
1. The Number-13 class 46.700 tons fast battleships was cancelled on 19 November 1923 even before the building could be started. Their main armament was to consist of 4x2-18”guns.
2. Naval Treaty of Washington between the United States, British Empire, Japan, France and Italy signed on 6 February 1922 as a result of the Washington Naval Conference between November 1921-February 1922 which intended to limit the total capitals ship tonnage of these five major powers. 

Norwegian offshore supply ship Troms Fjord 2005-

Den Helder, Netherlands 20 September 2010

Isle of Man-flagged, homeport Douglas, Isle of Man, IMO 9348211, MMSI 235083745 and call sign 2EBO5. Owned and managed by Troms Offshore, Tromso, Norway. Built by Palmer Johnson Norway, Flekkefjord, Norway in 2005. 

Norwegian offshore supply ship Island Endeavour 2008-


Off Den Helder, Netherlands 27 September 2010

Norway-flagged, homeport Aalesund, Norway, IMO 9402342, MMSI 258437000 and call sign LAKQ3. Owned and managed by Island Offshore Management, Ulsteinvik, Norway. Built by Vard Brevik, Brevik, Norway in 2008. 

Dutch passenger ship Dokter Wagemaker 2005-

Off Den Helder, Netherlands 27 September 2010

Netherlands-flagged, IMO 9294070, MMSI 244030035 and call sign PH5436. Owned and managed by Texels Eigen Stoomboot, Den Hoorn, Netherlands. Built by Damen Shipyard Galati, Galati, Netherlands in 2005. 

Maltese galley Sant’Anna 1592

Owned by the Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem. Mentioned (date commissioned?) on 13 February 1592 with as commanding officer Gabriel le Petit dit Le Vaguil.

Source
Ubaldino Mori Ubaldini. La Marine del Sovrano Militare Ordino de San Giovannni di Gerusalemme di Radi e di Malta. Rome, 1971, p. 566-595. 

Maltese galley Sant’Anna 1590

Owned by the Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem. Mentioned (date commissioned?) 27 August 1590 with as commanding officer Maurizio Lesch.

Source
Ubaldino Mori Ubaldini. La Marine del Sovrano Militare Ordino de San Giovannni di Gerusalemme di Radi e di Malta. Rome, 1971, p. 566-595.

Maltese galley Santa Marta 1585

Owned by the Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem. Mentioned (date commissioned?) on 30 May 1585 with as commanding officer Francescp Buondelmonte.

Source
Ubaldino Mori Ubaldini. La Marine del Sovrano Militare Ordino de San Giovannni di Gerusalemme di Radi e di Malta. Rome, 1971, p. 566-595. 

Maltese galley San Giovanni 1584

Owned by the Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem. Mentioned (date commissioned?) on 2 November 1584 with as commanding officer Don Ferdinando de Hinistrosa.

Source
Ubaldino Mori Ubaldini. La Marine del Sovrano Militare Ordino de San Giovannni di Gerusalemme di Radi e di Malta. Rome, 1971, p. 566-595.

Maltese galley San Giacomo 1584

Owned by the Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem. Mentioned (date commissioned?) on 2 November 1584 with as commanding officer Don Ferdinand d‘Eredia.

Source
Ubaldino Mori Ubaldini. La Marine del Sovrano Militare Ordino de San Giovannni di Gerusalemme di Radi e di Malta. Rome, 1971, p. 566-595. 

Tuesday, 21 November 2017

Modern whaling harpoon (20th Century)

Oudeschild, Texel, Netherlands 29 September 2010

Since 1737 is in the whaling experimented with explosive guns using cannon-fired or even rocket-propelled harpoons. In 1870 however the Norwegian Svend Foyn invented the modern explosive harpoon and gun and despite alterations is his design still used as basic.

The minimum design demands for modern submarines according to Dutch naval experts around 1930

In the Lecture dated 28 March 1930 for aspirant officers of the Royal Netherlands Navy Reserve in the Dutch East Indies was explained what kind of demands a designer had to deal with to come with a compromised design including as much as possible of the demands still without increasing the displacement. The lecturer mentioned that the main task of a submarine was to nearer the enemy without being sighted and to manoeuvre in such a position that she was able to torpedo her target. Large displacements were a disadvantage and submarines were just successful when they operated in large numbers. Large number of small submarines were to prefer above a few large submarines. The main reason to decide to increase the displacement was heavier military demands.

An armament of at least 4-53,3cm torpedo tubes pointing out in the same direction It was believed that a modern warship could not be sunk by a single torpedo and considering the low chance of success of a torpedo  a salvo of several torpedoes was to be preferred. Usually 1-7,5cm/2,9”-10cm/2.93” gun probably also to be used as anti aircraft guns and some machineguns (4cm/1.57” anti aircraft machineguns were preferable).

Buoyancy of at least 20-25% of the displacement.

Maximum diving depth 60-100 metres needed to be invisible for air reconnaissance but also for escaping from attacks with depth charges. For the latter purpose was the as much as possible strength of the hull of utmost importance.

Surfaced speed and range were depending on the purpose of the submarine, when submerged a maximum speed of 8-10 miles. Increasing the submerged speed caused an relatively enormous increase of the weight.

Emergency dive time less than 60 seconds.

Source
Archive Dutch Naval Staff (National Archive, The Hague, Netherlands) inv. no. 291. Lecture dated 28 March 1930 for aspirant officers of the Royal Navy Reserve in the Dutch East Indies. 

Dutch sailing passenger ship (ex-Grada 1892-1915, Martha 1915-1955, Oudertrouw 1955-1986, Fatum Ferenda 1986-1994, Martha 1994-2000) Vliegende Hollander 2007-


Oudeschild, Texel, Netherlands 29 September 2010

Netherlandss-flagged, homeport Spakenburg, Netherlands, ENI 03010002, MMSI 244700780 and call sign PE3793. Laid down as the iron clipper sailing ship Grada of 130last/5.000 quintals on 25 February 1892 by J. Meijer, at his ship at Beneden-Leeuwen, Netherlands for C.J.W. Sijp, Tiel, Netherlands, who was a merchant in coal, launched some days before 26 July 1892, renamed Martha in 1915 of J. de Jong&H. Rogaar, Rotterdam, Netherlands, since 1920 of J. de Jong, Rotterdam, renamed Oudertrouw of R. de Jong, Rotterdam in 1955, rebuilt as a motor cargo ship in 1960, renamed Fatum Ferenda in 1986 of Fatum Ferenda Vof, Nieuwegein, Netherlands, renamed Martha in 1994 of R. Atkin, Amsterdam, Netherlands and converted into the sailing passenger ship Vliegende Hollander of K. van Twillaert, Kampen, Netherlands. Tonnage 246 tons and as dimensions 36,78 x 6,05 x 1,69 metres and 133 tons and as dimensions 39,02 x 6,05 x 1,40 metres. 

The design demands for the diving depth of submarines according to Dutch naval experts around 1930

In the Lecture dated 28 March 1930 for aspirant officers of the Royal Netherlands Navy Reserve in the Dutch East Indies was explained what kind of demands a designer had to deal with to come with a compromised design including as much as possible of the demands still without increasing the displacement. The lecturer mentioned that the main task of a submarine was to nearer the enemy without being sighted and to manoeuvre in such a position that she was able to torpedo her target. Large displacements were a disadvantage and submarines were just successful when they operated in large numbers. Large number of small submarines were to prefer above a few large submarines. The main reason to decide to increase the displacement was heavier military demands.

In an example with 3 types of submarines of which the surfaced displacement (800 tons) and a submerged buoyancy of 25%, fuel bunker capacity, range, armament, torpedoes and ammunition was similar were the influences described of changing range, speed and diving depth.

Type I tested on a diving depth of 60 metres had a maximum speed of 16 (surfaced)-9 (submerged) knots and a range of 2.500 (with a speed of 15 knots surfaced)-240 (submerged) nautical miles.

Type II tested on a diving depth of 80 metres had a maximum speed of 15 (surfaced)-8,5 (submerged) knots and a range of 1.900 (with a speed of 15 knots surfaced)-200 (submerged) nautical miles.

Type III tested on a diving depth of 100 metres had a maximum speed of 15 (surfaced)-8,5 (submerged) knots and a range of 825 (with a speed of 15 knots surfaced)-160 (submerged) nautical miles.

Source
Archive Dutch Naval Staff (National Archive, The Hague, Netherlands) inv. no. 291. Lecture dated 28 March 1930 for aspirant officers of the Royal Navy Reserve in the Dutch East Indies. 

Dutch inland tug Janna

Oudeschild, Texel, Netherlands 29 September 2010

Owned by Scheepswerf Visser since 1993 part of the Damen Shipyard Group and since 1 October 2011 named Damen Shipyards Den Helder. 

The design demands for fleet submarines according to Dutch naval experts around 1930

In the Lecture dated 28 March 1930 for aspirant officers of the Royal Netherlands Navy Reserve in the Dutch East Indies was explained what kind of demands a designer had to deal with to come with a compromised design including as much as possible of the demands still without increasing the displacement. The lecturer mentioned that the main task of a submarine was to nearer the enemy without being sighted and to manoeuvre in such a position that she was able to torpedo her target. Large displacements were a disadvantage and submarines were just successful when they operated in large numbers. Large number of small submarines were to prefer above a few large submarines. The main reason to decide to increase the displacement was heavier military demands.

As example was chosen for the fleet submarine type which had to be able to follow the battle fleet and needed a maximum speed of 21-22 miles. There were 3 types of submarines described of which the displacement (1.500 tons), fuel bunker capacity, range, armament, torpedoes and ammunition was similar.

Type A was fitted out with 2.040 hp diesel engines allowing a maximum speed of 15,3 (surfaced)-10,5 (submerged) knots, a submerged range of 180 nautical miles and a test diving depth of 350 metres.

Type B was fitted out with 3.000 hp diesel engines allowing a maximum speed of 17,2 (surfaced)-10,5 (submerged) knots, a submerged range of 180 nautical miles and a test diving depth of 300 metres.

Type C was fitted out with 5.700 hp diesel engines allowing a maximum speed of 21,1 (surfaced)-8,5 (submerged) knots, a submerged range of 110 nautical miles and a test diving depth of 300 metres.

Main conclusion was that to increase the surfaced speed was the diving depth decreased just like the submerged speed and range. The result was that the weight of the battery could be decreased and the electric motors less powerful.

Source
Archive Dutch Naval Staff (National Archive, The Hague, Netherlands) inv. no. 291. Lecture dated 28 March 1930 for aspirant officers of the Royal Navy Reserve in the Dutch East Indies. 

Dutch inland tanker Texel 1955-2016 (Amstel 2016-)


Oudeschild, Texel, Netherlands 29 September 2010

Netherlands-flagged, ENI 3110406. Built by Visser, Den Helderm Netherlands in 1955. Owned by Cooperatieve Inkoop Visserijbenodigheden, Oudeschild, Texel, since 2003 by CIV, Oudeschild and renamed Amstel in 2016 and owned by Anton Vermegen, Zaandam, Netherlands. 

Submarine types as distinguished by Dutch naval experts around 1930

British submarine cruiser HMS X-1

French submarine cruiser Surcouf

All submarines built before the First World War were outdated since the war lessons were afterwards incorporated in new building and designing. There were now 5 different types; the tonnages/displacement were somehow arbitrary.
1. Submarine cruisers of 2.000-3.000 ton of which the artillery was their man armament (1)
2. Fleet submarines of 1.500-2.000 tons which were operate with the battle fleet. Their sized was needed to able to make the necessary speed to follow the battle fleet even with some swell.
3. Ocean going submarines of 800-2.000 ton to act offensively from ever desired position.
4. Coastal defence submarines smaller than 800 ton.
5. Submarine minelayers, usually also armed with torpedo tubes.(2)

Notes
1. Like the French Surcouf (displacement 3.250/4.304 tons, 2-20,3cm/8” guns) or British HMS X-1 (displacement 2.780/3.600 tons, 4-13cm/15.2” guns).
2. The Dutch Hr.Ms. O 19 and O 20 armed with 8-53,3cm/6” torpedo tubes, 20 mine tubes and an artillery armament of 1-8,8cm guns and 2x1-4cm machineguns.

Source
Archive Dutch Naval Staff (National Arhcive, The Hague, Netherlands) inv. no. 291. Lecture dated 28 March 1930 for aspirant officers of the Royal Navy Reserve in the Dutch East Indies. 

Dutch inland tug Alkmaria-Victrix 1959-


Texel, Netherlands 29 September 2010

Oudeschild, Netherlands-flagged, ENI 3110448, Built by Visscher&Zn., Zwartsluis, Netherlands in 1959. First owned later by P. Daalder’s Aannemingsmaatschappij, Schoorl, Netherlands and nowadays by Ooms materiel B.V., Scharwoude, Netherlands. Dimensions 13,80 x 3,76 x 1,60metres. Fitted out with 1-167hp DAF engine. 

The Russian navy air force strength according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1939 no. 6

An item referred to the Proceedings dated March 1939 reporting that the air force of the Russian navy numbered totally 4,210 aircraft including 696 training planes, 104 heavy and 300 light bombers, 490 reconnaissance planes and 2.620 fighters. The army seems to posses 8.818 aircraft including 1.400 training planes. There were fifty aircraft plants in the Soviet Union. 

Swedish coastal artillery strengthened by militia according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1939 no. 8

An item referred to the Proceedings dated May 1939 reporting that Sweden strengthened her coastal artillery by 2 new militia contingents, one for the summer and one for the winter. 

Swedish chief of the defence staff proposed to keep a squadron through the whole year in service according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1939 no. 8

An item referred to the Proceedings dated May 1939 reporting that the Swedish chief of the defence staff proposed the commission during the whole year of 3 ironclads, the mine cruiser Clas Fleming (1) and 2 of the new guard vessels. During the summer were also more ships to be in service.

Note
1. Building ordered in 17 May 1910, launched by Bergsund Finnboda, Stockholm, Sweden on 14 December 1912, commissioned in February 1914, overhauled in 1939-1940, stricken in January 1959 and then sold to be broken up. 

Dutch navy accommodation ship Zr. Ms. Thetis (A887) 1982-

Den Helder, Netherlands, 29 September 2010

Laid down by Kon. Mij. De Schelde, Vlissingen, Netherlands on 12 October 1982, launched on 27 January 1983, commissioned on 14 March 1985. Displacement 800 tons and as dimensions 68 (maximum) x 12 metres. Crews numbers 106 men. Part of the Duik- en Demonteerschool Den Oever/Den Helder. 

Dutch Landing Platform Dock Zr. Ms. Johan de Witt (L801) 2003-



Harbour of Den Helder, Netherlands 29 September 2010

Netherlands-flagged, IMO 9280768, MMSI 244527000 and call sign PAJW. Especially built for amphibious operations on the frontier water-land. Able to act as floating headquarters for force of 50.000 military on land. Able to transport a complete amphibious marines battalion of maximum 555 men during 30 days and support then a land operation during 1o days and embark the battalion again. Contract for her building signed in May 2002. Laid down with yard number 393 at the Damen Shipyard at Galatz, Romania on 18 June 2003, the dry dock in which was the Casco was built, was filled with water on 26 October 2004 to allow towing the Casco to the deep part of the dock, later the Casco was towed towards the Damen shipyard at Vlissingen where she was completed, christened on Saturday afternoon 13 May 2006, trials 20 September-11 October and in December 2006, commissioned on Friday 30 November 2007 and handed over by the shipyard to the Royal Netherlands Navy on 7 March 2008. Accommodation for maximum 739 persons. Displacement maximum 15.500 ton and dimensions 176,35 x 29,2 x 5,9 metres. Speed 19,5 knots. Crew numbers 146 persons. Armwd with 2-3cm Goalkeeper systems. 

Dutch landing platform dock (LPD) Zr.Ms. Rotterdam (L800) 1998-


Harbour of Den Helder, Netherlands 29 September 2010

Ordered on 25 April 1994, laid down on 25 January 1996, launched on 22 February 1997 and commissioned on 15 April 1998. An amphibious transport or landing platform dock able to transport a complete battalion marines (611) with equipment. Enforcer-design as a result of a Dutch-Spanish project. IMO 9109756, MMSI 244159000 and call sign PARD. Loaded displacement and as dimensions 166 x 25 x 5,9 (medium) metres. Speed 20 knots. Crew numbers 153 men. Armament consists of 2 Goalkeeper CIWS systems, 4/10-12,7mm/0.50 machineguns and maximum 6 helicopters, 4 LCU or 6 LCVP’s. 

Maltese galley San Giacomo 1583

Owned by the Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem. Mentioned (date commissioned?) on 23 February 1583 with as commanding officer Giovanni Battista Somaia.

Source
Ubaldino Mori Ubaldini. La Marine del Sovrano Militare Ordino de San Giovannni di Gerusalemme di Radi e di Malta. Rome, 1971, p. 566-595.

Maltese galley San Giovanni 1583

Owned by the Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem. Mentioned (date commissioned?) on 23 February 1583 with as commanding officer Emilio Casati.

Source
Ubaldino Mori Ubaldini. La Marine del Sovrano Militare Ordino de San Giovannni di Gerusalemme di Radi e di Malta. Rome, 1971, p. 566-595. 

Maltese galley San Pietro 1583

Owned by the Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem. Mentioned (date commissioned?) on 23 February  1583 with as commanding officer Giovanni Enrique.

Source
Ubaldino Mori Ubaldini. La Marine del Sovrano Militare Ordino de San Giovannni di Gerusalemme di Radi e di Malta. Rome, 1971, p. 566-595.

Maltese galley San Giacomo 1582

Owned by the Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem. Mentioned (date commissioned?) in 1582 with as commanding officer Filippo de Tuyller de Hardemont.

Source
Ubaldino Mori Ubaldini. La Marine del Sovrano Militare Ordino de San Giovannni di Gerusalemme di Radi e di Malta. Rome, 1971, p. 566-595.

Maltese galley San Pietro 1582

Owned by the Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem. Mentioned (date commissioned?) in 1582with as commanding officer Frederico Cortez.

Source
Ubaldino Mori Ubaldini. La Marine del Sovrano Militare Ordino de San Giovannni di Gerusalemme di Radi e di Malta. Rome, 1971, p. 566-595. 

Dutch inland tanker Hillegersberg 2005-


Waal off Zaltbommel. Netherlands 25 September 2010

Netherlands-flagged and EU 2327025. Casco built by Centromost Stocznia Rzeczna, Plock, Poland and completed by Bijlsma Shipyard, Lemmer, Netherlands for account of Wallestra B.V., Rotterdam, Netherlands in 2005. 

Dutch tarn boiler

Oudeschild, Texel, Netherlands 29 September 2010

A tan-boiler for tanning (=preserving) of cotton nets, soils and roping by submerged in a hot solution consisting of water and cutch. Cutch consisted of extracted barks of for instance oak, quebracho and Indian acacia. 

Monday, 20 November 2017

Canadian self-unloading bulk carrier J.W. McGriffin 1971-1999 and Niagara 1999-




Launched on 16 December 1971 by the Canadian Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd. of the Collingwood Shipyards Ltd. with hull number 197 for account of the Canada Steamship Lined Ltd. Of Montreal, Canada. Building costs 13.000.000 Canadian dollars. Dimensions 730’0” (over all) x 75’00”x 30’03 1/16” (summer) x 46’06” (hold) or 222,50 x 22,86 x 9,22 (summer) x 14,17 metres. Cubic coal carry capacity 34.500 net tons (30.804 tons or 31.298mt). Fitted out with five cargo holds accessible by 22 hatches. Used for transport coal, grain, coke, stone and iron ore. On 24 December 1998 laid up at the Port Weller Dry Docks at St. Catherines where the forward part of her hull ad the self-unloading system were renewed. Rebaptized Niagara on 15 June 1999 by Mrs. Catherine Warry. She was lengthened with another 10’ (3,05 metres), widened with 3’(0,91 metres) and an increasing of her depth with  1,5’(0,46 metres) resulting in a carrying capacity of 37.694 tons with a maximum mid-summer draught of 31’04” or 9,56 metres or 30.223 tons with a maximum Seaway draught of 26’06” or 8,08 metres. As the Niagara still Canada-flagged, homeport St. Catharines, IMO 7228423, MMSI 316029000 and callsign VCGJ. Gross tonnage 23.983 tons, summer deadweight 34.938 tons and as dimensions 225 x 23 x 6,8 metres. Owned by the CSL Group, Montreal, Canada and managed by CSL International, Beverley, Massachusetts, USA  (elsewhere mentioned V. Ships Canada Inc.). 

Appraisal of 4x2-15,2cm/6” gun arrangement for cruisers by Italian naval expert Bianco di San Secondo according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

An item referred to the Rivista Marittime dated July/August 1938 which published an article written by colonel of naval weapons Bianco di San Secondo in which he made clear why 15,2cm/6” gun were to preferred above the 20,3cm/8” gun as main armament for a cruiser. He did not deny that a hit by a 20,3cm shell could cause much more damage than a 15,2cm shell. But it all depends on what was the target. That were in fact merchant ships, light units below the 3.000 ton and cruisers with an armour of just 6cm or with only the vital parts protected (by 1015cm). The high explosive shell was just effective against armour with a maximum thickness of 30cm regardless a calibre of 6” or 8”. While a 6” gun had a larger rate of fire was she even more effective than a 8” gun. Using shells suitable for penetrating armour was on a longer distance the 8” gun more effective, dealing with a thickness of 6cm no difference but with a thickness of 10cm and more was a 6” shell just able to penetrate on short distance from the opponent. The maximum range of a 6” gun was 25 and that of a 8” gun 30 kilometres. But still the rate of fire of a 6” was higher, a larger number was better for the fire control, easier to man and mechanical problems were less fatale than with 8” guns. Reckoning that a 6” gun had 75% of the score of a 8” guns he calculated the several options with as main conclusion that the main armament of a cruiser should be 6” and not 8“. The 5x3 gun arrangement was the most promising with the highest probably score.

With a 4x2-15,2cm/6” gun arrangement was the weight of the armament 480 tons, broadside weight salvo 2.000 kilo’s and a fire rate 5 of was it possible to fire 40 shells in a minute or every minute 2.000 kilo’s. Weight ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 80, 120 and 160 tons. Weight armament and ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 560, 600 and 640 tons. Probable number of hits 30. 

Soviet submarine strength at Vladivostok according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad 1939 no. 2

An item referred to the Revista Marittime dated November 1938 reporting that the Soviet Union possessed excluded a large number of around 200 ton submarines also 17-900 ton submarines with a range of 7.000 nautical miles. 

Egypt interested in creating her own navy according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad 1939 no. 2

An item referred to the U.S.R. dated 24 November 1938 reporting that the Egyptian cabinet intended to create a own navy for the defence of Egypt to consist for the time being of 36 ships. Choose was for light cruisers, submarines, minelayers and minesweepers although the ration was yet unknown. The Egyptian navy would in this manner numbering more ships as the British Dominions together with Australia possessing 17, Canada 9 and New Zealand 4 ships totally 30. 

Danish garrison stationed on Greenland according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad 1939 no. 2

An item referred to the Proceedings dated November 1938 reporting that Denmark built oil and gasoline depots on the south coast of Greenland and stationed a permanent garrison numberings 6 officers, 7 petty officers and 100 soldiers. 

Japanese submarine I-63 lost according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1939 no. 6

An item referred to the Jap. Chr. dated 9 February 1939 reporting that the Japanese submarine Igo No. 63 sunk in the Bungo Strait when she collided during manoeuvres just before sunrise on 2 February 1939. Of the 81 crewmembers were just 6 saved. The edition dated 9 March reported that the efforts to salvage her were stopped.(1)

Note
1, The I-61 was part of the Kaida-class cruiser submarines with a displacement of 1.829 (surfaced)-2.337 (submerged) tons, launched at the Sasebo Naval Arsenal, Japan on 28 September 1928, completed on 20 December 1928, sunk in a collision with her sister ship I-60 off Kyushu, salvaged in January 1940 and broken up. 

Polish bulk carrier Pomorze 2008-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 19 November 2017

Bahamas-flagged, homeport Nassau, IMO 9346823, MMSI 311358000 and call sign C6WU2. Owned and managed by Polsteam, Szczcin, Poland. Built by Xingang Shipbuilding Heavy Industry, Tianjin, China in 2008. 

Greek crude oil tanker Amalthea 2006-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 19 November 2017

Greece-flagged, IMO 9298650, MMSI 240447000 and call sign SYGJ. Owned and managed by Minerva Marine, Athens, Greece. Built by Daewoo Shipbuilding&Marine Engineering, Geoje, South Korea in 2006. 

Dutch artillery training ship Hr. Ms. Van Kinsbergen 1937-1959 (1974)


Laid down by Rotterdamsche Droogdok Maatschappij, Rotterdam, Netherlands on 11 September 1937, launched on 5 January 1939, commissioned on 21 August 1939, reclassified as frigate in 1950, accommodation ship at Vlissingen, Netherlands since 1 November 1955, decommissioned on 29 May 1959 and sold for ƒ 515.000 to be broken to at Gent, Belgium by Van Heygen on 19 February 1974. Nickname Flying Dutchman.

Displacement 1.760 (standard)-2.388 (full load) ton and as dimensions 100,2 x 11,6 x 3,4 metres or 328.9 x 38.1 x 11.2 feet. Crew numbered 183-220 men. The 2-triple expansion steam engines supplied 17.000hp allowing a speed of 25,5 knots. Light armoured with a 1,3cm/0.51” thick belt, a 2cm/0.79” thick deck and with the conning tower protected by 2cm/0.79”. Original armament consisted of 4-12cm/4.7” guns, 4-4cm/1.57” machineguns, 4-12,7mm/0.50 machineguns and 2 depth charge racks. Since 1941 2-10,5cm guns, 3-4cm machineguns, 2-2cm machineguns, 2 depth chargers and 2 mousetraps. 

Dutch submarine Hr. Ms. O23 1937-1948


Part of the O 21class, consisting of the O21-27, preceded by the O19 class. The O23 was first to be named K XXIII indicating that she was to serve in the Dutch East Indies. Laid down by Rotterdamsche Droogdokdok Maatschappij, Rotterdam, Netherlands on 12 October 1937, launched on 5 December 1939, commissioned on 13 May 1940, escaped to Portsmouth, England, completed by the John Thornycroft shipyard, decommissioned on 1 December 1948 and sold to be broken up in April 1949.

Displacement 990 (surfaced)-1.205 (submerged) tons and as dimensions 77,7 x 6,8 x 3,95 metres or 254.11 x 22,4 x 13,0 feet. The machinery consisted of 2x2.500 bhp diesels and 2x500bhp electric motors allowing a speed of 19,5 (surfaced)-9 (submerged) knots. Range 10.000 (surfaced, speed 12knots)-28 (submerged 8,5) nautical miles. Crew numbered 39 men, Armament consisted of 8-53,3cm/21” torpedo tubes (4-bow, 2 stern, 1x2external-traversssing amidships), 1-8,8cm gun, 2x1-cm machineguns and 1-12,7mm/0.,50“ machine gun . Sunk in the Second World War an Italians tanker and sunk or damaged 4 Japanese ships. 

British protected cruiser 2nd class HMS Dido 1894-1926


Of the Eclipse-class 2nd class protected cruisers, consisting of the Eclipse, Diana, Dido, Doris, Isis, Juno, Minerva. Talbot and Venus, preceded by the Astraea-class and succeeded by the Arrogant-class. Laid down by London&Glasgow Shipbuilding, Govan, Scotland on 30 August 1894, launched on 20 March 1896 (the 18th failed when she sticks on the slipway), completed on 10 May 1898, decommissioned and became as an emergency ship part of the Fleet Reserve, reclassified as a depot ship in 1912 and sold to be broken up on 26 December 1926.

Displacement 5.690 tons and as dimensions 106,7 x 16,3 x 6,25 metres ot 350 x 53.6 x 20.6 feet. Machinery consisted of 2 inverted triple-expansion steam engines and 8 cylindrical boilers supplying via two shafts 8.000 (natural draft)-9.600 (forced draft)-ihp allowing a speed of 18,5 (natural draft)-19,5 (forced draft) knots. Coal bunker capacity maximum 1.075 ton. Her crew numbered 450 men. Original armament consisted of 5x1-15,2cm/6” quick firing guns, 6x1-12cm/4.7” quick firing guns, 6-3pd quick firing guns and 3-45,72cm/18” torpedo tubes (1 stern above the furace and 1 each broadside submerged). After 1905 consisted the armament of 11-15,2cm.6” quick firing guns, 9-7,6cm/3” quick firing guns, 7-30od quick firing guns and 3-4,72cm/18” torpedo tubes. Armour consisted of 3,8cm1.5”-7,6cm/3” thick decks, a 15,2cm/6” thick hatch, 7,6cm/3” thick gun shields with the conning tower protected by 15,cm/6”. 

Dutch naval survey vessel Luymes (A803) 2004-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 19 November 2017

Netherlands-flagged, IMO 9271860, MMSI 245939000 and call sign PAUF. Commissioned on 3 June 2004. Displacement 1.875 tons and as dimensions 75,00 x 13,10 x 4,00 metres. Optional armament 2-12,7mm machineguns. Crew numbers 18 men. Two diesels with total horsepower of 1.564 hp allowing a speed of 12 knots. 

Thais tug Tarua 120 2012-

Thailand-flagged, homeport Bangkok and IMO 9621388. Gross tonnage 424 tons, deadweight 172 tons and as dimensions 22,66 (between perpendiculars)-28,2 (over all)x 11,50-11,81 x 5,10 (design)-5,35 metres. Bollard pull 30 (static)-34 tons. S Schottel screws. Total horsepower 2,882hp supplied by 2 Daihatsu 6DKM-20e.and a speed of 12 knots. Crew number 10 men. Owned and managed by Thailand Port Authority, Bangkok, Thailland. Built by Italthai Marine, Samut Prakan, Thailand with hull number 162 in 2012. 

Panamanian tug Virgin del Valle 2012-

Panama-flagged, IMO 9600648, MMSI 373832000 and call sign HP4549. Gross tonnage 294 tons, deadweight 147 tons, displacement 540 tons and as dimensions 28,67 (overall) x 10,43 (over all) x 4,60 (depth at sides) x 4,80 (draught aft) metres. Two Caterpillar supplying totally 4.584ahp allowing a speed of 13,6 (astern)-13,7 (ahead) knots. Bollard pull 58,3 (astern)-60 (ahead) ton. Built by Damen, Gorinchem, Netherlands with yard number 51178 for account of MMG Tugs/Meyer‘s Group S.A. in 2012. Damen ASD tug 2810. 

Panamanian tug Arcangel San Miguel 2012-

Panama-flagged, IMO 9600750, MMSI 373831000 and call sign HP4015. Gross tonnage 294 tons, deadweight 147 tons, displacement 540 tons and as dimensions 28,67 (overall) x 10,43 (over all) x 4,60 (depth at sides) x 4,80 )draught aft) metres. Two Caterpillar supplying totally 4.584ahp allowing a speed of 13,4 (astern)-13,6 (ahead) knots. Bollard pull 58,4 (astern)-60,1 (ahead) ton. Built by Damen, Gorinchem, Netherlands with yard number 51179 for account of MMG Tugs/Meyer‘s Group S.A. in 2012. Damen ASD tug 2810. 

Sunday, 19 November 2017

Finnish bulk carrier Kumpula 2012-



Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 19 November 2017

Finland-flagged, homeport Helsinki, IMO 9590802, MMSI 230625000 and call sign OJPC. Owned and managed by ESL Shipping, Helsinki, Finland. Built by Hyundai Vinashin Shipyard, Ninh Phuoc, Vietnam in 2012.